Author Topic: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"  (Read 2888 times)

Offline MysteRy

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Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« on: April 02, 2014, 08:03:55 AM »
Source : PC.net


I/O

Stands for "Input/Output" and is pronounced simply "eye-oh." Computers are based on the fundamental idea that every input results in an output. For example, if you are running a word processor program and type a sentence on your keyboard, the text will appear on the screen. The keyboard is an input device and the screen is an output device. You might also print the text using a printer, which is another output device. The computer's CPU handles all the I/O operations, sending the data it receives to the correct path. The path may be to the video card, to the hard drive, or to the RAM, just to name a few.

The ports on the outside of a computer are commonly referred to as "I/O ports" because they are what connect input and output devices to the computer. Software developers use I/O to describe how a program will function, depending on what a user enters. For example, if the user presses the space bar key in a game, say "Super Jumper Man," the character on the screen will jump. Multiply that by several thousand other scenarios of user input and you have yourself a computer game.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #1 on: April 02, 2014, 08:05:14 AM »
I/O Address

Each I/O device connected to your computer is mapped to a unique I/O (Input/Output) address. These addresses are assigned to every I/O port on your computer, including USB, Firewire, Ethernet, VGA, and DVI ports, as well as any other ports your computer might have.

Having a unique address assigned to each port allows your computer to easily recognize and locate devices attached to your computer. Whether it is a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, or any other device, the computer can locate it by its I/O address. Because I/O addresses are controlled by the computer's motherboard, they do not use up any system memory, or RAM.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #2 on: April 02, 2014, 08:06:47 AM »
IBM Compatible

The personal computer market in the early 1980's consisted primarily of Apple and IBM computers. Apple's systems ran a proprietary operating system developed by Apple, while IBM machines primarily ran PC-DOS. As the demand for personal computers began to grow, IBM decided to license the DOS operating system to other manufacturers. These companies began producing personal computers that were called PC clones or IBM compatibles.

As several other manufacturers began producing PCs, supplies grew and costs began to drop. This enabled more people to afford PCs and sales of IBM compatibles began to dominate the personal computer market. It wasn't long until the new manufacturers' PC sales surpassed the number of computers sold directly by IBM. The Apple Macintosh also gained substantial market share when it was introduced in 1984, but the low cost and wide availability of IBM compatibles kept their sales strong.

Sales of IBM compatibles surged again in 1995, when Microsoft introduced the Windows 95 operating system. However, by that time, the term "IBM compatible" had become almost irrelevant, since most PCs used Microsoft Windows as the primary operating system. Also, PC manufacturers had been building their own computers for many years, and there were few similarities between IBM's own PCs and IBM compatibles.

In 2005, IBM stopped manufacturing personal computers. The company that started the PC revolution is no longer in the market. Therefore, the term "IBM compatible" is a bit outdated, though it can still be used to describe Windows-based computers. The term "PC" is more appropriate, albeit a bit ambiguous, since Macs are technically PCs too. Therefore, the term "Windows computer" seems to be the best way to describe a modern day IBM compatible.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #3 on: April 02, 2014, 08:09:38 AM »
ICANN

Stands for "Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers." The ICANN is an non-profit corporation that is responsible for allocating IP addresses and managing the domain name system.

Every computer connected to the Internet, from servers to home PCs, has an IP address. However, it would be unrealistic for the ICANN to directly assign each computer an individual IP address. Instead, the ICANN allocates blocks of IP addresses to companies, educational institutions, and Internet service providers. These organizations then allocate IP addresses to computers that use their Internet connections.

While the ICANN is a US-based organization, it is also a global Internet community. According to ICANN's website, the organization is "dedicated to preserving the operational stability of the Internet; to promoting competition; to achieving broad representation of global Internet communities; and to developing policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes" (icann.org).
« Last Edit: April 02, 2014, 08:13:00 AM by MysteRy »

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #4 on: April 02, 2014, 08:14:09 AM »
ICF

Stands for "Internet Connection Firewall." ICF is a Windows XP feature that protects computers connected to the Internet from unauthorized access. When ICF is enabled, Windows keeps a log of incoming requests from other systems on the Internet. If the request is something the user has requested, like a Web page, the transmission will not be affected. However, if the request is unsolicited and is not recognized by the system, the transmission will be dropped. This helps prevent intrusion by hackers or malicious software such as spyware.

While ICF limits incoming traffic from the Internet, it does not affect outgoing traffic. This means data sent from your computer is still vulnerable to viruses or other disruptions even when ICF is enabled. If you have multiple computers sharing the same Internet connection via ICS, you can enable ICF for all the computers. However, you should enable ICF for the router or system connected directly to the Internet connection, not for each individual system.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #5 on: April 02, 2014, 08:15:04 AM »
ICMP

Stands for "Internet Control Message Protocol." When information is transferred over the Internet, computer systems send and receive data using the TCP/IP protocol. If there is a problem with the connection, error and status messages regarding the connection are sent using ICMP, which is part of the Internet protocol.

When one computer connects to another system over the Internet (such as a home computer connecting to a Web server to view a website), it may seem like a quick and easy process. While the connection may take place in a matter of seconds, there are often many separate connections that must happen in order for the computers to successfully communicate with each other. In fact, if you were to trace all the steps of an Internet connection using a traceroute command, it might surprise you that Internet connections are successful as often as they are. This is because for every "hop" along the way, the network must be functional and able to accept requests from your computer.

In cases where there is a problem with the connection, ICMP can send back codes to your system explaining why a connection failed. These may be messages such as, "Network unreachable" for a system that is down, or "Access denied" for a secure, password-protected system. ICMP may also provide routing suggestions to help bypass unresponsive systems. While ICMP can send a variety of different messages, most are never seen by the user. Even if you do receive an error message, the software you are using, such as a Web browser, has most likely already translated the message into simple (and hopefully less technical) language you can understand.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #6 on: April 02, 2014, 08:16:07 AM »
Icon

Ever since the Macintosh was introduced in 1984, icons have been the way we view files on computers. An icon on your computer screen represents an object or a program on your hard drive. For example, the folders you see on your desktop or in open windows are icons. The files that you see in those folders are also icons. The trash can on the Macintosh and the recycle bin on Windows are both icons as well.

Icons are a visual representation of something on your computer. For example, a blue "e" on your screen most likely repersents the Internet Explorer program. An icon that looks like a sheet of paper is probably a text document. By clicking and dragging icons, you can move the actual files they represent to various locations on your computer's hard drive. By double-clicking an application icon, you can open the program. Icons are one of the fundamental features of the graphical user interface (GUI). They make computing much more user-friendly than having to enter text commands to accomplish anything. Some Unix nerds would beg to differ, but I'm talking about normal people here.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #7 on: April 02, 2014, 08:17:16 AM »
ICQ

Example: "She typically joins the 20-somethings chat room in ICQ."

ICQ is a popular online chat program that allows users to communicate with each other over the Internet. It is similar to other instant messaging programs, but is based on chat rooms rather than direct person-to-person messaging. This makes ICQ an ideal messaging program for users that want to be part of an online community.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #8 on: April 02, 2014, 08:18:45 AM »
ICS

Stands for "Internet Connection Sharing." ICS allows multiple computers to connect to the Internet using the same Internet connection and IP address. For example, several computers in a household can connect to same cable or DSL modem using a router. As long as the router is connected to the modem, every computer connected to the router is also connected to the Internet. Network address translation (NAT) allows the computers to share the same IP address.

ICS can also be done using software. Windows 98 and later, as well as Mac OS X, support Internet connection sharing. This allows one system's network settings to be modified, turning the computer into a gateway. Other computers on the same network can then use that computer's Internet connection. Windows users can also use programs such as WinGate and WinProxy to achieve the same result. While it is possible to share an Internet connection using software, using hardware (such as a router) for ICS is the easiest and most hassle-free solution.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #9 on: April 02, 2014, 08:19:56 AM »
ICT

Example: "Thanks to ICT, users can access information from all over the globe."

ICT is short for "Information and Communication Technologies." It is similar to IT (Information Technology), but focuses more on telecommunications mediums, such as the Internet, cell phone networks, and satellite technology. Modern forms of ICT have made it possible for users across the world to communicate with each other in real-time on a regular basis. Examples include instant messaging, video-conferencing, online multiplayer gaming, and social networking websites.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #10 on: April 02, 2014, 08:21:05 AM »
IDE

IDE may either stand for "Integrated Device Electronics" or "Integrated Development Environment." The first is a hardware term, while the second is software-related. Both terms are highly technical and if you know what they mean, you can impress even the nerdiest of your friends.

1. Integrated Device Electronics

IDE is one of the most widely-used hard drive interfaces on the market. The fancy name refers to how the technology integrates the electronics controller into the drive itself. While the original IDE standard could only support hard drives containing up to 540 MB of data, the new standard, EIDE (Enhanced-IDE), supports hard drives with over 250 GB of data. It also allows for data transfer rates that are over twice as fast as the original IDE.

Another common hard drive interface is SCSI, which is faster than EIDE, but usually costs more per megabyte. Newer hard drives may also use a SATA (Serial ATA) connection, which improves speed and power consumption over both SCSI and IDE.

2. Integrated Development Environment

Computer programming is a complicated and time-consuming task. Therefore, software development programs aim to make the development process as smooth as possible. IDE programs include a source code editor, compiler, and usually a debugger that all work together when building a software program. The IDE keeps track of all files related to a project and provides a central interface for writing source code, linking files together, and debugging the software.

IDE programming software may also include a runtime environment (RTE) for testing the software. When a program is run within the RTE, the software can track each event that takes place within the application being tested. This can be an invaluable tool for debugging the program. Because the IDE software uses a central interface for writing the code and testing the program, it is easy to make quick changes to the code, recompile it, and run the program again. Programming is still hard work, but IDE software helps make the processes a little more trouble-free.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #11 on: April 02, 2014, 08:22:07 AM »
IEEE

Stands for the "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers." This is a non-profit organization that develops, defines, and reviews electronics and computer science standards. Though it is a U.S. based organization, standards developed by the IEEE often become International standards. Some examples of commonly-used products standardized by the organization are the IEEE 1284 interface (a.k.a. Parallel Port), which many printers use, and the IEEE 1394 interface (a.k.a. Firewire), which is a super-fast connection for digital video cameras, hard drives, and other peripherals.

The IEEE describes itself as "the world's largest technical professional society -- promoting the development and application of electrotechnology and allied sciences for the benefit of humanity, the advancement of the profession, and the well-being of our members." Perhaps they could standardize a more simplified definition of their organization...

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #12 on: April 02, 2014, 08:23:05 AM »
IGP

Stands for "Integrated Graphics Processor." An IGP is a graphics chip that is integrated into a computer's motherboard. The IGP serves the same purpose as a video card, which is to process the graphics displayed on the computer.

Integrated graphics processors take the graphcis portion of the processing load off the main CPU. However, because IGPs are soldered onto the motherboard, their size is limited and they cannot use a dedicated fan to cool them, like some video cards do. For this reason, IGPs typically do not have the same performance as video cards, which may be attached to the computer's PCI or AGP slots. Because integrated graphics processors cannot be removed, they also cannot be upgraded like video cards can. However, because of their small size, IGPs are a good solution for laptop computers and entry-level desktop PCs.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #13 on: April 02, 2014, 08:23:58 AM »
Illegal Operation

When a program on your computer has an error, you may see a message pop up on the screen saying, "Illegal Operation." This is a rather tactless way of saying something went wrong with the program that was running. It could also be a fault with the operating system itself. The problem with the phrase "Illegal Operation" is that it seems to put the blame on you, the user. The fact is, the error was most likely caused by a bug in the program, and is certainly not your fault.

Common errors that produce illegal operation messages are divide by zero errors (no number is divisible by zero), and memory leaks where the program tries to address memory in another program's memory space. If these errors happen while a program is running, the execution comes to an abrupt halt and the program usually quits. Illegal operations can happen on both Windows and Macintosh computers, though the Mac OS X operating system is better at avoiding system-level errors.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #14 on: April 02, 2014, 08:25:08 AM »
IM

Stands for "Instant Message." Instant messaging, or "IMing," as frequent users call it, has become a popular way to communicate over the Internet. Two people with the same IM client software can type messages back in forth in a private online chat session. IM software allows users to build a list of friends, or "buddies" and displays what other users are online. After seeing who is online, the user can open up chat sessions with as many other people as he or she wants. While I find it difficult to focus on one conversation at a time, apparently some teenage girls that can keep more than ten conversations going at once.

Instant messaging can be a much more efficient way to communicate with others than sending multiple e-mails back and forth. For this reason, IMing has become a useful tool among friends and co-workers. Some people even find it more convenient to IM their friends than to talk on the phone, which I do not understand.

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