Author Topic: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"  (Read 3269 times)

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #30 on: April 02, 2014, 08:40:55 AM »
Interlaced

A common way to compress video is to interlace it. Each frame of an interlaced video signal shows every other horizontal line of the image. As the frames are projected on the screen, the video signal alternates between showing even and odd lines. When this is done fast enough, i.e. around 60 frames per second, the video image looks smooth to the human eye.

Interlacing has been used for decades in analog television broadcasts that are based on the NTSC (U.S.) and PAL (Europe) formats. Because only half the image is sent with each frame, interlaced video uses roughly half the bandwidth than it would sending the entire picture.

The downside of interlaced video is that fast motion may appear slightly blurred. For this reason, the DVD and HDTV standards also support progressive scan signals, which draw each line of the image consecutively.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #31 on: April 02, 2014, 08:41:51 AM »
Internal Hard Drive

Example: "All of his programs and files are stored on the computer's internal hard drive."

As the name implies, an internal hard drive is a hard drive located inside a computer. Nearly all computers come with an internal hard drive, which serves as the computer's primary storage device. It typically contains the operating system, software applications, and other files.

While most computers only have one internal hard drive, some system units and servers have room for multiple hard drives. Extra internal hard drives can be added to these systems to provide additional storage inside the computer. If a computer only has one internal hard drive bay (such as a laptop), extra storage can be added using an external hard drive.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #32 on: April 02, 2014, 08:42:45 AM »
Internet

Believe it or not, the Internet was created way back in 1969, during the Cold War, by the United States military. It was meant to be a "nuke-proof" communications network. Today, the Internet spreads across the globe and consists of countless networks and computers, allowing millions of people to share information. Data that travels long distances on the Internet is transferred on huge lines known collectively as the Internet backbone. The Internet is now maintained by the major Internet service providers such as MCI Worldcom, Sprint, GTE, ANS, and UUNET. Because these providers make huge amounts of revenue off the Internet, they are motivated to maintain consistent and fast connections which benefits everyday Internet users like you and me.

Many people think the Internet and the World Wide Web are the same thing. They're not! The World Wide Web is what you are browsing right now. It is one of the many features of the Internet. E-mail, FTP, and Instant Messaging are also features of the Internet.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #33 on: April 02, 2014, 08:43:39 AM »
InterNIC

Stands for "Internet Network Information Center." The InterNIC is an organization created by the National Science Foundation to provide Internet information and domain name registration services. While the InterNIC was started as a joint effort between Network Solutions and AT&T, it is now run by the Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

While the InterNIC still monitors domain names and provides WHOIS data, the domain name registration process has been relinquished to commercial domain registrars. Public information regarding domain names, registrars, and other Internet-related data can be accessed at the  InterNIC website.
« Last Edit: April 02, 2014, 08:46:02 AM by MysteRy »

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #34 on: April 02, 2014, 08:46:39 AM »
Intranet

Contrary to popular belief, this is not simply a misspelling of "Internet." "Intra" means "internal" or "within," so an Intranet is an internal or private network that can only be accessed within the confines of a company, university, or organization. "Inter" means "between or among," hence the difference between the Internet and an Intranet.

Up until the last few years, most corporations used local networks composed of expensive proprietary hardware and software for their internal communications. Now, using simple Internet technology, intranets have made internal communication much easier and less expensive. Intranets use a TCP/IP connection and support Web browsing, just like a typical Internet connection does. The difference is that Web sites served within the intranet can only be accessed by computers connected through the local network. Now that you know the difference between the Internet and an intranet, you can go around telling people on the street what you know and impress them.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #35 on: April 02, 2014, 08:47:35 AM »
iOS

iOS (pronounced "eye-oh-es") is Apple's mobile operating system that runs on the iPhone, iPad, and the iPod touch. It has a graphical user interface (GUI) that is optimized for touchscreen devices. For example, the iOS home screen displays several icons, which are arranged in a static grid. Each application or "app" can be opened by simply tapping the the icon, rather than double-clicking the icon, like a desktop OS.

iOS includes several apps, such as Safari (for web browsing), Mail (for email), Messages (for text messaging), and Music (for playing songs). It also supports third party apps developed by other software developers. These apps can be downloaded from Apple's App Store either directly from an iOS device or through iTunes on a Mac or PC. Unlike Google's Android operating system, iOS does not support the installation of apps from outside the official app store.

Like OS X, Apple focused on making iOS intuitive and easy-to-use. However, because it is designed specifically for mobile devices, iOS lacks the advanced features of a desktop OS. For example, iOS does not include a file manager or a means to navigate the file system. Additionally, iOS apps are often simplified and lack the features of their desktop counterparts. While iOS apps may not have the advanced capabilities of desktop applications, they make it easy to perform common tasks while on-the-go.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #36 on: April 02, 2014, 08:48:32 AM »
IP

Stands for "Internet Protocol." It provides a standard set of rules for sending and receiving data through the Internet. People often use the term "IP" when referring to an IP address, which is OK. The two terms are not necessarily synonymous, but when you ask what somebody's IP is, most people will know that you are referring to their IP address. That is, most people who consider themselves computer nerds.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #37 on: April 02, 2014, 08:50:08 AM »
IP Address

Also known as an "IP number" or simply an "IP," this is a code made up of numbers separated by three dots that identifies a particular computer on the Internet. Every computer, whether it be a Web server or the computer you're using right now, requires an IP address to connect to the Internet. IP addresses consist of four sets of numbers from 0 to 255, separated by three dots. For example "66.72.98.236" or "216.239.115.148". Your Internet Service Provider (ISP), will assign you either a static IP address (which is always the same) or a dynamic IP address, (which changes everytime you log on). ISPs typically assign dial-up users a dynamic IP address each time they sign on because it reduces the number of IP addresses they must register. However, if you connect to the Internet through a network or broadband connection, it is more likely that you have a static IP address.

ISPs and organizations usually apply to the InterNIC for a range of IP addresses so that all their clients have similar addresses. There are three classes of IP address sets that can be registered: Class C, which consists of 255 IP addresses, class B, which contains 65,000 IP addresses, and class A, which includes hundreds of thousands of IP addresses. Because there are so many computers now connected to the Internet, the InterNIC is actually running out of IP addresses. Therefore, Class A and Class B address blocks are very hard, if not impossible, to get. Most large companies have to register multiple Class C addresses instead. To resolve this problem, the Internet Engineering Task Force, which created the original IP address standard, is working on a new protocol called "IP Next Generation" or "IPng."

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #38 on: April 02, 2014, 08:51:03 AM »
iPad

Example: "Many schools use iPads as educational tools for teaching purposes."

The iPad is a lightweight tablet PC developed by Apple. It looks similar to an iPhone, but has a much larger touchscreen display. Like the iPhone, the iPad supports multi-touch (using multiple fingers at once) and gestures, such as swiping or pinching objects on the screen.

The iPad runs the iOS, which is the same operating system the iPhone uses. Therefore, the interface of the iPhone and iPad are similar and include many of the same features. The iPad can also run iPhone apps, as well as iOS apps written specifically for the iPad. iPad apps can be downloaded through iTunes or directly from the App Store app on the iPad.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #39 on: April 02, 2014, 08:52:00 AM »
iPhone

Example: "He used to the Google Maps app on his iPhone to find the nearest gas station."

Apple's iPhone is a smartphone that functions as a mobile phone, an iPod, and can run third-party apps. It runs the iOS, which is an operating system developed by Apple specifically for portable devices.

The iPhone includes a touchscreen display, which is used to control most functions of the phone. For example, you can swipe sideways on the home screen to browse through multiple screens of apps, then tap the icon of the app you want to open. Similarly, you can swipe your finger up and down in the address book to browse through your list of contacts and tap the name of the person you want to call.

While iPhone functions as both a cell phone and an iPod, its greatest potential lies in third-party apps developed for the iPhone. There are hundreds of thousands of apps available through Apple's App Store, which include productivity programs, utilities, games, and many other types of applications. These apps allow you to customize your iPhone with whatever functionality you need.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #40 on: April 02, 2014, 08:53:01 AM »
iPod

The iPod is a portable music player developed by Apple Computer. Though it is an Apple product, the iPod can be used with both Macs and PCs. The iTunes software, also created by Apple, is used to organize and transfer songs and playlists to the iPod. Both iTunes and the iPod support a wide variety of audio formats, including MP3, AAC, WAV, and AIFF. MP3 is the most common audio compression format, while AAC is the format used by the iTunes Music Store. WAV and AIFF are nearly identical formats that store CD-quality audio.

Since introducing the iPod in 2001, Apple has released several new versions of the popular device. These include iPod, iPod mini, iPod Special Edition, iPod photo, and iPod shuffle. iPod mini is a smaller version of the iPod that comes in various colors and stores fewer songs. iPod Special Edition is a variation of the basic iPod (the first being a black U2 iPod with the signatures of the band members on the back). iPod photo is an iPod with a color screen that allows users to store and view a library of photos as well as play music. iPod shuffle is an extra small iPod that only holds a couple hundred songs and does not have a screen.

All iPods store data on an internal hard drive, except the iPod Shuffle, which uses flash memory. This means each iPod, including the shuffle, can also be used as a hard drive. Aside from being a music player, the iPod can serve as a backup device, a basic organizer, and an alarm clock. To transfer files to the iPod, you must first connect it to your computer using a USB or Firewire cable. iTunes can automatically transfer your playlists and songs or you can change the program's preferences to manually update the iPod.

Because of its superb interface and unmatched ease of use, the iPod has become the staple product of the portable music player market. Granted, the "cool factor" of owning an iPod has certainly helped it gain popularity as well.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #41 on: April 02, 2014, 08:53:55 AM »
IPv4

Example: "Most computers display their IP address in the IPv4 format."

IPv4 is the fourth revision of the Internet Protocol and is the most common version used today. It uses 32-bit addresses, which are formatted as "111.111.111.111." Each section may contain a number from 0 to 255, which provides a total of 4,294,967,296 (2^32) possible addresses.

Since each computer connected to the Internet must have a unique IP address, 4.3 billion IP addresses is not enough to cover the worldwide requirement for unique IPs (nice planning guys). Therefore, IPv6, which supports 128-bit IP addresses, is currently being developed to replace IPv4.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #42 on: April 02, 2014, 08:54:56 AM »
IPv6

Every computer system and device connected to the Internet is located by an IP address. The current system of distributing IP addresses is called IPv4. This system assigns each computer a 32-bit numeric address, such as 120.121.123.124. However, with the growth of computers connected to the Internet, the number of available IP addresses are predicted to run out in only a few years. This is why IPv6 was introduced.

IPv6, also called IPng (or IP Next Generation), is the next planned version of the IP address system. (IPv5 was an experimental version used primarily for streaming data.) While IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses, IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, which increases the number of possible addresses by an exponential amount. For example, IPv4 allows 4,294,967,296 addresses to be used (2^32). IPv6 allows for over 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP addresses. That should be enough to last awhile.

Because IPv6 allows for substantially more IP addresses than IPv4, the addresses themselves are more complex. They are typically written in this format:

hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh:hhhh

Each "hhhh" section consists of a four-digit hexadecimal number, which means each digit can be from 0 to 9 and from A to F. An example IPv6 address may look like this:

F704:0000:0000:0000:3458:79A2:D08B:4320

Because IPv6 addresses are so complex, the new system also adds extra security to computers connected to the Internet. Since there are so may IP address possibilities, it is nearly impossible to guess the IP address of another computer. While most computer systems today support IPv6, the new Internet procotol has yet to be fully implemented. During this transitional process, computers are often assigned both an IPv4 and an IPv6 address. By 2008, the U.S. government has mandated that all government systems use IPv6 addresses, which should help move the transition along.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #43 on: April 02, 2014, 08:55:52 AM »
IPX

Stands for "Internetwork Packet Exchange." (I didn't know "exchange" started with an "x" either.) It is a networking protocol used to connect networks based on Novell's NetWare. IPX is "connectionless," meaning it doesn't require connections to be maintained during an exchange of packets, like a phone call does. It can just pick up where it left off when a connection is temporarily dropped. Another nice thing about IPX is that it usually only loads when you log on to a network, so it doesn't take up unnecessary resources. As some video game players may know, IPX used to be the standard protocol for network games. However, most video games now use the more robust TCP/IP protocol, which allows for long distance network gaming.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "I"
« Reply #44 on: April 02, 2014, 08:56:44 AM »
IRC

Stands for "Internet Relay Chat." IRC makes it possible for people using the Internet to converse with each other in real time by typing messages back and forth. In order to talk to someone through IRC, you need to connect to the same IRC server. When you and others connect to the server, you can join a channel (a.k.a. chat room), and talk with the other people who have joined that channel. Usually, channels have specific topics like "teenchat," "macusers," or "folksingingmotorcyclists." To connect to an IRC server, you'll need a software program like Ircle (Mac) or mIRC (Windows). Most IRC programs also let you transfer files with other users, which is a cool feature, but has also led to a lot of software piracy.

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