Author Topic: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"  (Read 1518 times)

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #15 on: April 07, 2014, 07:24:35 AM »
Optical Media

Media, in the computer world, refers to various types of data storage. For example, hard drives, CDs, DVDs, and USB drives are all different types of media. Optical media refers to discs that are read by a laser. This includes CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs, and all the variations of the two formats -- CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD+R, Blu-ray, and many others.

Optical media typically does not have as fast of a seek time as hard drives (the time it takes to access information on different parts of the disk), but it has many other advantages. Because optical discs are not based on magnetic charges like hard drives are, the discs are less likely to lose their data and have a longer shelf life -- around seven times longer than magnetic media. The discs are also more durable than hard drives and are much cheaper to produce, making them great for backups and for transferring small amounts of data between different computers.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #16 on: April 07, 2014, 07:25:28 AM »
OS X

Mac OS X, pronounced "Mac Oh-Es Ten," is the current version of the operating system used on Apple Macintosh computers. If you happen to pronounce it "Mac OS X," computer nerds and dedicated Mac users will be quick to correct you. While the name may be a bit confusing, Mac OS X is an advanced, user-friendly operating system.

Previous versions of the Mac OS, were based on the original Macintosh operating system, released in 1984. In the late 1990's, many computer users felt Windows had "caught up" to the Mac OS and Apple's operating system began to appear a bit dated. So Apple completely revamped the Mac OS and created a new operating system from the ground up.

While much of the code used to build Mac OS X was written from scratch, a lot was taken from the NEXTSTEP operating system. NEXTSTEP was a Unix-based system that ran on NeXT computers, which are no longer in production. NeXT was acquired by Apple in 1997 and Steve Jobs was hired as interim CEO. Apple developers took the Unix-based code from NEXTSTEP and combined it with the graphical user interface (GUI) of Mac OS 9. The result was a stable, high-performance operating system that had the stability of Unix and the intuitive interface of the Macintosh. Mac OS X 10.0 was released in 2001.

Since the initial release, Apple has released several major updates to Mac OS X, at a pace of roughly one update a year. The list of OS X versions include 10.0 Cheetah, 10.1 Puma, 10.2 Jaguar, 10.3 Panther, and 10.4 Tiger. Mac OS X 10.5 is expected to be called Leopard.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #17 on: April 07, 2014, 07:26:14 AM »
OSD

Example: "You can adjust the brightness of your display using your monitor's OSD."

OSD is short for "On Screen Display." An OSD is an onscreen menu included with most monitors that allows users to make adjustments to the display. Common OSD settings include brightness, contrast, and color calibration adjustments. Some monitors also include positioning settings and tilt control. You can activate the OSD by pressing the MENU button on the side of the monitor. Once the OSD appears, you can navigate through the menu options and make adjustments using the plus (+) and minus (-) buttons.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #18 on: April 07, 2014, 07:26:59 AM »
OSPF

Stands for "Open Shortest Path First." OSPF is a method of finding the shortest path from one router to another in a local area network (LAN). As long as a network is IP-based, the OSPF algorithm will calculate the most efficient way for data to be transmitted.

If there are several routers on a network, OSPF builds a table (or topography) of the router connections. When data is sent from one location to another, the OSPF algorithm compares the available options and chooses the most efficient way for the data to be sent. This limits unnecessary delays in data transmission and prevents infinite loops.

Offline MysteRy

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #19 on: April 07, 2014, 07:27:44 AM »
Outbox

An outbox is where outgoing e-mail messages are temporarily stored. While you are composing a message, most mail programs automatically save a draft of your message in the outbox. The message is then stored in the outbox until it is successfully sent to the recipient. Once the message has been sent, most e-mail programs move the message to the "Sent" or "Sent Messages" folder. While the terms "Outbox" and "Sent Messages" are often used synonymously, technically they have different meanings.

Unlike the inbox, which is often overflowing with e-mail, the outbox often does not contain any messages. This is because all the messages that have been sent have already been transferred to the Sent Messages folder. You can think of an e-mail outbox much like the outbox at an office. Mail that is to be delivered is temporarily placed in the outbox until the mailman (or the designated office mail guy) picks up the mail and brings it to the post office. However, the messages in an e-mail outbox are typically delivered immediately (unless a connection to the outgoing SMTP mail server is not available). If only it was as easy to keep your inbox clean...

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #20 on: April 07, 2014, 07:28:27 AM »
Output

Data generated by a computer is referred to as output. This includes data produced at a software level, such as the result of a calculation, or at a physical level, such as a printed document. A basic example of software output is a calculator program that produces the result of a mathematical operation. A more complex example is the results produced by a search engine, which compares keywords to millions of pages in its Web page index.

Devices that produce physical output from the computer are creatively called output devices. The most commonly used output device is the computer's monitor, which displays data on a screen. Devices such as the printer and computer speakers are some other common output devices.

The opposite of output is input, which is data that is entered into the computer. Input and output devices are collectively referred to as I/O devices.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #21 on: April 07, 2014, 07:29:11 AM »
Output Device

Any device that outputs information from a computer is called, not surprisingly, an output device. Since most information from a computer is output in either a visual or auditory format, the most common output devices are the monitor and speakers. These two devices provide instant feedback to the user's input, such as displaying characters as they are typed or playing a song selected from a playlist.

While monitors and speakers are the most common output devices, there are many others. Some examples include headphones, printers, projectors, lighting control systems, audio recording devices, and robotic machines. A computer without an output device connected to it is pretty useless, since the output is what we interact with. Anyone who has ever had a monitor or printer stop working knows just how true this is. Of course, it is also important to be able to send information to the computer, which requires an input device.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #22 on: April 07, 2014, 07:29:54 AM »
Overclocking

For some people, fast is never fast enough. In the world of computers, a fast processor can be made even faster by overclocking it. Overclocking involves increasing the clock speed of the computer's CPU past the rate at which it was originally designed to run.

Some ways to overclock a processor include increasing the CPU's operating speed in the system BIOS or changing the hardware jumper settings for the processor. Modifying these settings may allow the processor to run faster than set by the manufacturer, which may increase the overall performance of the computer. However, since other settings, such as the memory speed, frontside and backside bus speeds, and other components are fixed, there may not be a significant increase in performance.

Regardless of how overclocking is done, it potentially may cause problems with the computer. After all, when you overclock a computer, you are altering the manufacturer's design of the machine. For example, if there is not enough electrical current to to power the processor at the new rate, it may slow down or stop running completely. Also, if the heat sink cannot sufficiently cool the processor running at the faster rate, it may overheat, causing your computer to freeze or crash. This is actually a preventive measure, since the computer stops functioning when the CPU gets too hot. Otherwise, the CPU may literally fry itself and your overclocked processor may become an overcooked processor.

In summary, overclocking a processor can be a risky endeavor. It is best left to computer enthusiasts who understand their hardware and are willing to accept the risks associated with it. Since overclocking voids your computer's warranty, don't expect the manufacturer to replace your cooked CPU for free. If you want a fast machine that is supported by the manufacturer, buying a fast processor to begin with is your best bet.

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Re: Computer Terms Beginning with "O"
« Reply #23 on: April 07, 2014, 07:30:38 AM »
Overwrite

In computing, overwriting refers to replacing old data with new data. There are two primary types of overwriting: 1) replacing text, and 2) replacing files.

1) Replacing text

The default behavior of most word processing programs is to insert characters where the cursor is located. However, some programs allow you to change the standard behavior from insert to overwrite (or "overtype"). If an application supports both modes, the Insert (INS) key can often be used to toggle between insert and overwrite mode.

While in insert mode, text to the right of the cursor is shifted to the right as new text is entered. For example, say you want to add the word "and" between "five" and "six," in the string "four, five, six." You would move the cursor immediately before the word "six," then type "and" (followed by a space). The result would be "four, five, and six." In overwrite mode, the word "six" would be overwritten by the word "and," so the resulting string would read, "four, five, and." Overwrite mode simply replaces existing characters as you type.

2) Replacing files

The term "overwrite" also refers to replacing old files with new ones. If you try to save a document with the same filename as an existing document, you may be asked if you want to overwrite the file. If you click OK, the old document will be overwritten by the new one. Similarly, when moving files to a folder, the operating system may ask you if you would like to overwrite existing files with the same filenames. If you choose select Overwrite, the old files will be replaced by the new ones.

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